1. Insulin is a hormone that is required to regulate blood glucose in humans. Certain forms of the disease diabetes are caused by an inability to produce insulin. In order to produce insulin artificially the insulin gene is isolated from a human cell and then inserted into a plasmid. The DNA responsible for the synthesis of insulin is then inserted into a bacterium.
(a)  State a general term for this technique
  • genetic manipulation / engineering / recombinant DNA technology / gene technology
(b) Explain why the plasmid is described as a vector. 
  • carries/ transfers gene / DNA
  • to another, cell/ bacterium/ place

Outline the role of the bacterium in the process once the vector has been inserted into the host cell.

  • multiplication of bacteria
  • multiplication of, plasmids/ insulin gene
  • production/ synthesis of insulin
  • using, metabolic/ biochemical materials of bacterium
  • detail of protein synthesis