1. The human gene for alpha-1-antitrypsin was introduced into fertilised eggs of sheep and the eggs implanted into surrogate mothers. Some surrogates produced transgenic female animals which secrete AAT in their milk
a State how the gene for AAT could have been inserted into the egg cells of sheep
  • direct injection / heat shock / electroporation
b Give a human disease is AAT used to treat?
  • cystic fibrosis / emphysema
c Explain why bacteria could not be used to produce the human protein AAT
  • AAT is a glycoprotein / has a carbohydrate added
  • this is a post translational modification / occurs after translation
  • bacteria are incapable of this
(any 2)
d Explain what is meant by transgenic animals
They contain genetic material that has been
  • artificially introduced
  • from another organism