The diagram below shows the structure of a chloroplast.  

a.   Name the process that occurs in chloroplasts  
    Photosynthesis (1)
b   Name the structures labeled.  
  (i) X.  
    Grana/granum (1)
  (ii) Y  
    Stroma (1)
c   Give two similarities in structure between chloroplasts and mitochondria.  
  • double membrane/envelope membrane;
  • possess DNA circlets;
  • possess ribosomes;
  • contain electron carriers;
  • large internal surface area.
(any 2)
d   Some scientists think that chloroplasts and mitochondria have evolved from intracellular symbiotic bacteria. Explain  
    why the structures of mitochondria and chloroplasts can account for this hypothesis.  
  • contain 70s ribosomes like bacteria/prokaryotes
  • contain DNA/contains genetic information codes for proteins;
  • organelles can manufacture own proteins
  • organelles can reproduce independently
(any 2)